How to be a fan of problematic things – Social Justice …
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
How to Make Wealth - Paul Graham
So far, this essay has dealt lightly with regional differences and largely confined the discussion to polar, temperate, and tropical conditions in the seas, and rainforest versus dryer conditions on land. While existed, barriers to species diffusion on land were relatively modest, hence dominance. But at the Triassic’s end, and continental differences in plants and animals often became significant in later times. Although the formation of Pangaea had profound impacts, because land life was relatively young, the differences and resultant changes due to the removal of oceanic barriers were less spectacular than would happen in the distant future, such as when .
I continued to and became my . My former partner is the Indiana Jones of the free energy field, but I eventually realized that while it was awe-inspiring to witness his efforts, one man with a whip and fedora cannot save humanity from itself. I eventually took a different path from both my partner and astronaut colleague, and one fruit of that direction is this essay. Not only was the public largely indifferent to what we were attempting, but those attracted to our efforts usually either came for the spectacle or were opportunists who betrayed us at the first opportunity. As we weathered attacks from the power structures, such treacherous opportunities abounded. I witnessed dozens of attempts by my partner’s associates to steal his companies from him (, , , ), and my astronaut colleague was twice ejected from organizations that he founded, by the very people that he invited to help him. During my radicalizing years with my partner, I learned that , and it is the primary reason why humanity is in this predicament. The antics of the global elites are of minor importance; the enemy is us.
And now it is a nation that wants some things very much
Earth had never before hosted anything like behaviorally modern humans. Nothing came close. They wielded fire and began using it for offensive purposes, to . They had sophisticated stone tools and weapons, they mastered language and could engage in group behaviors that no other land animal remotely accomplished. They probably had sophisticated projectile weapons, and if the , they may have also . One !Kung arrow can bring down a 200-kilogram antelope in less than a day. What kind of animal in the Western Hemisphere and Australia, that had never seen anything like a human before, and would have been the of the invaders, and the large ones all reproduced slowly, could have withstood that onslaught? None that I can think of. Neanderthals were ambush predators of megafauna that were wary of humans, and whatever projectile weapons they may have had, they would have been inferior to those that behaviorally modern humans left Africa with about 60-50 kya. Neanderthals still lived off of those animals, with suffered during hunts. That would have been nothing like what the invaders of the Western Hemisphere and Australia encountered. They could have walked right up to all of those animals with no conditioned fear of humans and stuck their spears into them, maybe not even needing to use projectile weapons, much less poisoned ones. That scenario has been called the , but it would not have seemed a rapid event to the invaders. It would have been a butcher shop’s version of the Garden of Eden. Farther than they could imagine, in every direction, were animals with no fear of humans that could be killed so easily that it may have literally become child’s play. One argument by human-agency skeptics is that continental animals were subject to predation and would have begun fleeing fast. That seems like a weak argument, and here is why.
In general, it knows what these things are
has been called “the Einstein of linguistics.” has been profound, and it has been interesting to stumble upon his work in diverse fields, largely related to linguistics and psychology, but he is also a major figure in philosophy. Chomsky did not find an intellectually satisfying connection between his scientific and political work, but others have. Chomsky has had an outsized influence on linguistics since the 1950s, his interactive style can be polemic, and his tremendous influence arguably delayed some directions that linguistics has taken. Darwin’s observations again found new relevance, this time in linguistics; he noted that language acquisition seemed instinctual. Chomsky observed that infant on Earth can be placed in society, and will master the language that he or she was raised with, which is one of . Darwin thought that human mental traits were developed through natural selection, and although Chomsky thought that there was an innate language “organ” in human biology, he did not pursue its evolutionary implications, and linguistics neglected that connection until recently. Since the rise of DNA analysis and new directions in linguistics that even Chomsky began taking in his old age, scientists are finding genes and brain regions closely related to language. The predominant evolutionary models have , and in the frontal lobe is closely associated with those activities. One way that scientists linked brain regions with activities and traits was when those areas have been damaged by accident or disease. In 1990, a scientist reported on a London family wherein a large fraction had severe language deficits. In 1998, and isolated the gene as the cause. with and, together with other anatomical similarities, this suggests that Neanderthals may have had spoken language.