Relying on others an essay in epistemology and …
And victims who survive crime often want nothing to do even with criminals who sincerely repent and want, as much as possible, to undo what they have done.
Rationalism in politics and other essays Free medical essay
In () (1911)) Vaihinger extrapolated from's epistemology (as understood by)the notion that all of our conceptsincluding those involved in both science andare nothing more than useful fictions.
Chomsky, consequently, is one of the people who tend to regard the repressive totalitarian regime of the Soviet Union, or other Communist countries, as merely the excusable response to American opposition.
Donald Trump and the rise of tribal epistemology - Vox
Selected Essays, Basic Books, 2013, p.97Dante Alighieri, XXXIV:139
["And thence came forth to see again the stars."]With exquisite irony, just as the Iron Curtain and the Soviet Empire fell in the years 1989-1991, American 60's radicals, who were essentially Communist sympathizers, were completing their takeover of American higher and other "circles," as the Soviets used to say, of the American intelligentsia.
11/02/2018 · On Lying
The second weakness of the regress argument is that its conclusionmerely says this: If there are justified beliefs, there must bejustified beliefs that do not receive their justification from otherbeliefs. Its conclusion does not say that, if there are justifiedbeliefs, there must be beliefs whose justification is independent ofany justification for further beliefs. So the regress argument, if itwere sound, would merely show that there must be doxasticbasicality. Dependence coherentism, however, allows for doxasticbasicality. So the regress argument merely defends experientialfoundationalism against doxastic coherentism. It does not tell us whywe should prefer independence foundationalism to dependencecoherentism.
The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the …
His assertion that, "every rational being exists as an end in himself and not merely as a means to be arbitrarily used by this or that will" [Beck, p.46] -- jedes vernünftige Wesen als Zweck an sich selbst, zum beliebigen Gebrauche fur diesen order jenen Willen" [p.428] -- is, I think, true; and it adds another feature, the concepts of means and ends, to the idea of a rational being.
Philosophical Dictionary: Vagueness-Verstehen
The Enlightenment is most identified with its politicalaccomplishments. The era is marked by three political revolutions,which together lay the basis for modern, republican, constitutionaldemocracies: The English Revolution (1688), the American Revolution(1775–83), and the French Revolution (1789–99). Thesuccess at explaining and understanding the natural world encouragesthe Enlightenment project of re-making the social/political world, inaccord with the models we allegedly find in our reason. Enlightenmentphilosophers find that the existing social and political orders do notwithstand critical scrutiny. Existing political and social authorityis shrouded in religious myth and mystery and founded on obscuretraditions. The criticism of existing institutions is supplementedwith the positive work of constructing in theory the model ofinstitutions as they ought to be. We owe to this period the basicmodel of government founded upon the consent of the governed; thearticulation of the political ideals of freedom and equality and thetheory of their institutional realization; the articulation of a listof basic individual human rights to be respected and realized by anylegitimate political system; the articulation and promotion oftoleration of religious diversity as a virtue to be respected in awell ordered society; the conception of the basic political powers asorganized in a system of checks and balances; and other now-familiarfeatures of western democracies. However, for all the enduringaccomplishments of Enlightenment political philosophy, it is not clearthat human reason proves powerful enough to put a concrete, positiveauthoritative ideal in place of the objects of its criticism. As inthe epistemological domain, reason shows its power more convincinglyin criticizing authorities than in establishing them. Here too thequestion of the limits of reason is one of the main philosophicallegacies of the period. These limits are arguably vividly illustratedby the course of the French Revolution. The explicit ideals of theFrench Revolution are the Enlightenment ideals of individual freedomand equality; but, as the revolutionaries attempt to devise rational,secular institutions to put in place of those they have violentlyoverthrown, eventually they have recourse to violence and terror inorder to control and govern the people. The devolution of the FrenchRevolution into the Reign of Terror is perceived by many as provingthe emptiness and hypocrisy of Enlightenment reason, and is one of themain factors which account for the end of the Enlightenment as anhistorical period.