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Licence means a contract in which an Intellectual Property Rights holder gives permission to another to perform any Restricted Acts in relation to the intellectual property.

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de Huszar, introduction by Friedrich A.

Understanding and protecting Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is important in order to avoid potential disputes when engaging in research and writing. HKU’s Intellectual Property Rights Policy—approved by the Council in June 2011—sets out the University’s policy on IPR for works produced at the University by staff, students and visitors of HKU.

Hayden Boyers, ed.Introduction by Dean Russell

This Policy and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with it or its subject matter shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Courts of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall have exclusive jurisdiction to settle any dispute or claim that arises out of or in connection with this Policy.

Williams, Foreword by Sheldon Richman, and "The Book and Author" by Bertrand de Jouvenel.


He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.

For such reasons, there must be a State effort that must be done to achieve innovation in undeveloped countries a more favorable context that may impact this worrying numbers, and arise development in the future. The inclusion of new economical sectors, innovative juridical systems and woman in the Patents context must be priority for the administrations and international organizations.

9 Geoffrey Brennan and James M.

The future of the nations must be directed to economical projection and sustainable realization of objectives, for such, the efforts of governments must be directed to enhance more efficient policies for Industrial Property rights realization. According to the Colombian Government while the investment in the United States is of 400 dollars per capita for digital based companies, in Colombia the investment average per capita does not exceed 15 dollars. Clearly there are institutional incomprehension of this issues and a non-favorable environment for innovational investment (which can be represented in elevated costs and liabilities of institutions of Industrial Property).

Buchanan, David Gordon, Israel Kirzner, et al

Clearly IP rights withhold a lineal relation with economic well-being, and for such reasons countries within a more powerful economical condition can generate a more efficient-friendly environment for investors and intellectual developers of goods. The world economy is no longer being efficient and according to the IMF low growth rate of the 3.15% explains a lot of undeveloped economical areas. Disregarding this non-favorable economical context the growth of industrial implicated Intellectual Property institutions has grown in the region and the world, surprisingly the Industrial Property protection mechanisms are being more frequently used than usual. In 2015 2,9 million Patents applications were filed, which is an outstanding historical number, and represents the interest of investment of States and privates towards innovation in an industrial context.

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Furthermore the Global Innovation Index (GII) aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovations in countries, for such reasons this index, evaluates the tailoring policies that governments apply in favor of long term output growth, improved productivity and job growth. Furthermore, this analysis done by the University of Cornell, the Insead School of Business and the World Intellectual Property Organization (GII) addressed that the Latin-American country, which is nearest to the top of the ranking is Chile, when occupying the 44th place of it. Certainly one of the main criteria’s for the coefficient is Industrial Property institutions and rights, therefore the Patents efficiency systems are severely behind from the other nations in the world.

10 Geoffrey Brennan and James M.

On the other hand, it is necessary to point out that global economics and political development towards new Industrial Property rights realization have excluded Latin America, for such reasons it is necessary to take into account several points, which can explain this sidelining. According to the United Nations CEPAL, during 2016 for second year in a row American countries –as a region- have suffered economical decreasing. The expected economical growth for this region in 2017 according to the UN institution is a subdued 1.3%, which has clearly compromised the advances in legal Intellectual Property and Industrial Property optimization systems. Furthermore this growth retraction of the Caribbean and Americas concentrates mainly in some countries is it was expected the most undeveloped countries were the ones that lowered the regions achieve.