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$400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960.

Politics | News about Politics in America & the World

And I thought it important to state what these might be. Looking more closely at the organizational forms that were animated in the revolutionary upsurges in El Alto in the early 2000s, I suggested that we might need to look at a variety of intersecting organizational forms, including those favored by the “horizontalists”, which cut across other more confederal and in some instances vertical structures. I ended up with a fairly utopian sketch of intersecting organizational forms – both vertical and horizontal – that might work in governing a large metropolitan area such as New York City (2013a: 151-153).

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David HarveyCity University of New York, USA

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption.

The  is not as elusive as pundits, novelists and screenwriters would have you believe.

Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

Wayne LaPierre accuses Democrats, media, activists of exploiting "tragedy for political gain"


Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.

Romanias political crisis deepens as ombudsman appeals to high

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Angel Gurría tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars.

Our presents information on its origins.


By the twentieth century mafiosi were extorting money from aristocrats and by the end of the same century they were . One might make a case that certain landholding aristocrats and higher clergy, including a few bishops, condoned the actions of the Mafia when it was expedient, but sweeping generalizations are unjustified. For example, the land reforms of 1948 dividing the large rural estates were opposed by the nobles who owned these properties, and certain mafiosi worked for these landholders as land managers. Until the twentieth century the Church in Italy rarely took a strong position on any "progressive" social issue, so (for example) divorce was legalized in the country only in 1974. If anything, we could say that the Mafia was sometimes facilitated by corrupt politicians who, like most Italians, were Catholic. It is true, however, that the Mafia flourished for a long time because the Church and the ruling class failed to recognize it as a threat to the very fabric of society.