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Leveraging the use of captured sensor and water meter data make the transmission and processing of water-based data possible. New solutions are being installed to retrofit older water systems and new systems alike, which will monitor factors like vibrations or water flow. Thousands of sensors inform municipal water authorities about events such as leaks, or transmit data about storm water overflows. It will also provide households with information about water usage or possible health threats.

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The greenfield model is where the urban area is developed from scratch with little reliance on existing infrastructure and support. While this enables the use of state-of-the art solutions and technologies, it also requires significant upfront investment in basic infrastructure. These are more suitable in situations where planning and governance are more centralized with a string private- investor based commercial interest and real estate development model. The alternative model is the brownfield model which targets existing or abandoned urban areas. Brownfield models required updating/upgrading of existing infrastructure as well as the mechanism to deliver value. The scale here is not as grand as the greenfield projects and will depend on the priorities and commitment of stakeholders in different government and industry sectors.
Pre-requisites for Smart Cities in India

Standlerthis document is at first posted 4 Jan 1997, revised 16 Feb 2014.

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National Literacy Trust director Jonathan Douglas said: "Our research confirms that technology is playing a central role in young people's literacy development and reading choice.

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A clearer pattern was visible with the readership of printed newspapers. This has tumbled from 46% in 2005 to 31% in this latest study. In contrast, there are now 41% of these young people who read news stories online.

And 23% of the youngsters read fiction on their smartphones.

All public works department and critical ministries such as health and education should be equipped with systems that have the capacity to be monitored and networked with other critical systems to obtain more sophisticated and granular in-formation on how they are performing and affecting each other. Additional efficiencies are gained when departments are able to share relevant, actionable information.

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"While we welcome the positive impact which technology has on bringing further reading opportunities to young people, it's crucial that reading in print is not cast aside."

Citizen Awareness & Involvement

Younger children who read printed books as well as used computers were more likely to have higher reading levels than those who only read on screen, the study said. Although this gap did not apply to those children who used tablet computers or e-readers.

Facilitating Public-Private Partnerships

High precision geospatial data acquisition instruments, efficient geo-processing software, improved geo-visualization framework and simulators help to create the roadmap for planners and policymakers to examine how well a specific city plan is contributing to each and every aspect of sustainability. Geospatial information allows the increasing use of sensors for real-time monitoring of equipment and infrastructure conditions. The explosion of mobile devices and applications, also make geospatial and other data more useful for individuals.