First contact between Xeelee and photino birds
is complex, but the preceding presentation is largely adequate for this essay’s purpose, while it can be helpful to be aware that the physics behind FE and antigravity technologies will probably render the Standard Model obsolete. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and . But that understanding is not necessary to relate the story that White Science tells today of how Earth developed from its initial state to today’s, when complex life is under siege by an ape that quickly spread across the planet like a cancer once it achieved the requisite intelligence, social organization, and technological prowess.
A Modern-Day Witch Hunt | The History Corner
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
Historian Arthur Bestor suggested that earlier forms of American utopian communalism were a social correlative of the Yankee inventor-entrepreneur, producing "patent-office models" of social experiment. That would be a fairly central part of the historic American ethos, which has been marked by an intriguing plethora of such contraptions. The homesteaders and arcadian prophets previously cited may be the more enduring part of the often naive and messy communalism of the late-1960s-early-1970s which curiously turned political radicalism into privateering small-group utopianism, frequently with a mystical or hallucinatory or other cultist overlay. Some of it, as with the earlier in origin but continuing Catholic Worker communalism for society's victims—see the autobiography of the saintly founder, Dorothy Day, A Long Loneliness (1951)—reaches back several generations, and indirectly into millennia of holy refuges. But this admirable side of communalism should not mislead us into a positive view of all communalism. Some of it—the murderous "Manson Family" is only the most notorious example—can be characterized as nothing less than evil. Between Day and Manson, there is a considerable variety. I am appalled at both general condemnations and affirmations (see Nozick, below) of utopian communalism; critical discrimination, especially from a libertarian perspective, is essential here, too. Characteristic, I think, of a considerable part of the recent wave of communalism, a good bit of which still continues, was not social autonomy and institutional experiment and economic self-sufficiency and positive individualism, but the protective marginality of the weak, the sick, the outcast, and others of the immense number of "losers" in our often ruthless and anomic orderings. Representative of some of this may be the over-praised writings of the mawkish juvenile prophet of such utopian pathos, Raymond Mungo, such as his Total Loss Farm (1970). As the more thoughtful Judson Jerome pointed out in his Families of Eden (1974), though himself an advocate of such protective "Edenism," many of the communes were simply temporary sanctuaries for weakness.
My modern day Socrates | Intro to Political Theory Blog
. The degree to which classical utopias such as Plato's are not programmatic but intellectual models for contemplation is disputed. See, for example, Elizabeth Hansot, "The Republic of Plato," Perfection and Progress: Two Modes of Utopian Thought (Cambridge, Mass.:1974), pp. 22–44, who takes it as primarily contemplative. I would incline to the argument that something partly new enters utopianism with the Renaissance, as with the positive skepticism of Michel de Montaigne's "Of Cannibals," Selected Essays of Montaigne, trans. D. A. Frame (New York:1963). But since some commentators hold to a dividing line in the Enlightenment, and others not until the nineteenth century, the rise of the programmatic remains uncertain.