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Claude McKay & Jean Toomer Essay -- essays research …
Jeanattended the first lecture and received an overwhelming impressionof Bennett's "inner freedom" and "quietly sustainedfeeling of joy" and "a level sensibly higher and muchmore stable than my own." Next day, when Toomer, Fred Leighton,and Gorham Munson met for lunch with Bennett, Jean learned thatGurdjieff, seven years before his death, had begun in 1942 todevelop some rather specific teachings in Paris and trained severalpeople to transmit them.
Toni Morrisonwrites, of Toomer and ,
"In spite of Jean Toomer's yearning for racelessness, hishorror of 'dark blood,' what is astonishing is how eloquent hewas about the drop that bedeviled him: how moving he was aboutthose who shared it.
The Collected Poems – Jean Toomer | Pseudo …
Between 1940 and 1950 Toomer continued to write poems, such as "The Promise,""They Are Not Missed," "To Gurdjieff Dying," and "See theHeart," but his writings more often shifted away from literary works to lectures,essays, and pamphlets on Quaker religious philosophy. Many of the essays, like "SantaClaus Will Not Bring Peace" (1943), "The Presence of Love" (1944),"Keep the Inward Watch" (1945), "Authority, Inner and Outer" (1947),and "Blessing and Curse" (1950), were published in the Quaker journal In 1947 his Friends General Conference Lecture was published as while his 1949 William Penn Lecture appeared as After 1950 Toomer produced no literary works, as he began withdrawingfrom public life. After attending a talk on Gurdjieff in New York City in 1952, however,he recommitted himself to promoting higher consciousness, so he conducted workshops inDoylestown until plagued by ill health in 1957. Following several years of invalidism, inand out of nursing homes and crippled by arthritis, he died in Doylestown.
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Symbolist and imagist aesthetics provided those equivalents, derived from both Frenchand American sources. Of the French symbolists Toomer's mentor was Baudelaire, whose provided models for the prose poems and lyrical sketches in ;of the American symbolists it was Walt Whitman, whose democratic idealism and mysticalconception of the self appealed to Toomer's idealist imagination. Symbolist idealism alsofigures prominently in his early fascination with imagism. In his attempts to fashionexperience as a mystical moment of vision, and to create the immediacy and presentness ofportraiture of literature, he found imagist aesthetics to be compatible with his own."Their insistence on fresh vision and on the perfect clean economical line was justwhat I had been looking for. I began feeling that I had in my hands the tools for my owncreation" (Turner, ed., p. 120). Imagist poetics thus provided for him the idealmedium to make the reader "see," almost in mystical fashion, the distilledessence of an insight or experience.
Essay Claude McKay & Jean Toomer - 699 Words | …
Between 1918 and 1923 Toomer wrote the short stories "Bona and Paul" and"Withered Skin of Berries," the plays (1922) and (1922),and many poems such as "Five Vignettes," "Skyline," "Poem inC," "Gum," "Banking Coal," and "The First American."The urtext for both "Brown River Smile" and , "TheFirst American" was a lyrical expression of his racial and democratic idealism.