Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH)
Natural law theory is a valid part of science, because any n person natural law statement about values can be expressed as an explicitly scientific, value free statement about rational self interest, evolution, and n + 1 player game theory. It is also a valid part of the study of law and economics
Parkinson's Law | The Economist
The varying definitions of natural law are clearly consistent on the issue of individual violence. On the topic of collective violence, the questions of what are just grounds for making war, how may a just war be conducted, and what may a just victor do with an unjust loser, the various definitions of natural law often seem cloudy and contradictory. There are two reasons for this apparent cloudiness. One is that there is no natural definition of a collective entity, so it all depends on what gives the collective entity its substance and cohesion, how the individual is a participant in the acts of the collective entity. The Nuremberg trials contain extensive discussions of this point. The other reason is that there is a large difference between what the victor should do and what the victor may lawfully do. The victor should be magnanimous and lenient, as at Nuremberg, but may lawfully be strict and harsh. On the questions that most commonly arise in practice, all the different definitions of natural law give clear, consistent and straightforward answers: The usual reason for war is that one group defines another group as enemy, and then uses organized collective violence to seize the property of the members of that group, and to enslave or kill them. In such case it is open season on the aggressor because they constitute a clear danger to their neighbors. In a just war it lawful to napalm bomb enemy civilians in a defended city, though not to intentionally target enemy civilians, unlawful to bombard an open city, and unlawful to massacre prisoners under any circumstances, though individual prisoners may be executed for broad reasons. It is sometimes lawful to refuse to take prisoners, depending on the circumstances. The contradictions usually evaporate when we ask the questions that we are actually interested in, about the kind of situations that actually occur in practice. Arguments about whether a given military action was in accordance with the laws of war usually involve appeal to the facts, and arguments about the intentions and capabilities of the combatants, rather than appeal to differing concepts of the laws of war, indicating that our uncertainty concerning the laws of war is less than other sources of uncertainty.
In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the "people" should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice.
The Law of Accelerating Returns | KurzweilAI
If someone rejects the language of natural law, refuses to use such words, pretends not to comprehend them, and rejects them as meaningless, then he is not interested in using words as a medium of communication. He is merely using them as a method of control. It is pointless to attempt to communicate with such a person.
For complete details, see below
Goretska Maryana perfectly combines knowledge and practical skills are so highly lawyer in commercial, civil, family, banking, tax, customs law, bankruptcy, international private law, administrative and labor law. He has experience representing clients in state and commercial structures, banks, executive and judicial powers, the ICAC at the CCI of Ukraine, Supreme Court of Ukraine.
The Problem of Fractional Reserve Banking, Part 1
But we see a similar problem in that the book lacks a separate article about Say's Law as such and then, in the biographical article on Say himself, puts the matter in these terms:
Say's Law has various interpretations.
His objective was an accurate rendering of Mr
a leading expert in the field of legal services Law firm "Goretskyy and Partners." Goretska Maryana graduated from Kyiv National University of Trade - Economic University with the qualifications of "master", the Academy of Labour, Social Relations and Tourism, received a diploma in law.Goretska Maryana perfectly combines knowledge and practical skills are so highly lawyer in commercial, civil, family, banking, tax, customs law, bankruptcy, international private law, administrative and labor law. He has experience representing clients in state and commercial structures, banks, executive and judicial powers, the ICAC at the CCI of Ukraine, Supreme Court of Ukraine.