(2011) -- porcelain, 6 x 6 x 1.5 in (15 x 15x 4 cm) each.

 (2010) -- ink on canvas, 44 x 44 in (100 x 100 cm) each.

2018 AAAS Annual Meeting February 15 - 19, 2018Austin, TX

Evaluation in the context of this approach is not associated with objective tests, and the like, but rather, with measuring attitudes and social consciousness, and, as pointed out by Susan Toohey, this is sometimes negotiable through dialogue.

(2009) -- Real-time parametric animation, color, silent, loopless (no fixed duration).

Intellectual property rights and empowerment are also examined.

In the course of the paper we specify that AIK, whether institutionalized or not, structured or unstructured, has specific implications for democratization, community empowerment and nation building.

-- Five lagoglyphic interstellar messages transmitted to the Lepus Constellation, 2009.

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We reflect also on methodological pluralism, and knowledge production.


We reflect on anticipated outcomes and methods of evaluation.

Embedded in the products and services associated with IK are proprietary systems which are often more flexible and negotiable than its western counterpart in some cases and non-existent in others.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

For some 'unified theorists' who believe in the concept of a single science, IK may probably be construed as scientific in the light of some of the common features associated with the enterprise.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares

One perspective suggests that IK should be integrated into the mainstream whilst another implies that IK is science - separate from the mainstream, but equal.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIK): Goals and Outcomes Resolving theoretical and conceptual issues about the identity of African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIK) is in fact one of the many challenges confronting African philosophers, historians, anthropologists and educators.

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares

There are numerous other theoretical and methodological puzzles, most of which would best be resolved in structured discussions within an institutional framework, in the context of a planned curriculum and formalized discourse.

University of California - Davis

European philosophers of science from Popper to Lakatos, and Kuhn to Feyerabend have spent an inordinate amount of time discussing the nature of rationality, objectivity and problem solving in mainstream science.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

We need to do the same for AIK, rejecting, accepting, modifying or adapting relevant conceptual baggage in the field, and creating entirely new constructs of analysis for understanding the phenomenon, where necessary.