Philosophical Dictionary: O proposition-Ousia
2. Abortion. This troublesome topic, with one foot in metaphysics (when does the fetus becomes a human being?) and another in ethics (is it better to have an abortion than to have a child with genetic defects?), has received much attention in the literature. There are two brief but excellent collections of readings on this subject, each representing diverse points of view: Joel Feinberg (ed.), The Problem of Abortion and Baruch Brody (ed.), Abortion and the Sanctity of Human Life. Individual essays on the subject constantly increase in quantity: any volume of the quarterly journal Philosophy and Public Affairs (published by Princeton University Press) exhibits additional pieces on this as on all of the following subjects. Glanville William's The Sanctity of Life and the Criminal Law discusses legal as well as moral aspects of abortion, euthanasia, and related topics.
Free reflective essay on counseling Essays and Papers
That goodness and badness are in some sense objective properties of the things or situations characterized as good or bad, is eloquently defended in the first two sections of Bertrand Russell's classic essay, “The Elements of Ethics” (1912). When Russell, after a forty-year absence, returned to writing once more on ethics, in his equally eloquent book, Human Society in Ethics and Politics (1955), he defended the view that goodness and badness characterize human subjects and not the objects characterized as good and bad. But his actual judgments on particular moral issues changed not at all as a result of this about-face in ethical theory. An excellent book-length discussion of the concepts of moral goodness is G.H. Von Wright, The Varieties of Goodness.
There have been more articles and books written on ethics in the twentieth century than in the entire history of the subject before 1900. Whether a great deal has been added to the wisdom of the ages by this proliferation of essays, is a matter for individual judgment; but that many distinctions have been made and many concepts clarified that were not made or clarified before, is surely beyond question. For reasons of this very proliferation of studies, the following essay does not attempt to exhaustively survey the entire field of twentieth-century ethics. Some major ethical approaches and “schools”—such as the Continental phenomenological, existential, and realist—are passed over for reasons of space. Our survey will primarily focus on other works in the tradition of Anglo-American ethical analysis.