ACYROLOGIA: Also called acyrology, see discussion under .
On the job you will sometimes give oral presentations based on research you have conducted. A concluding statement to an oral report contains the same elements as a written conclusion. You should wrap up your presentation by restating the purpose of the presentation, reviewing its main points, and emphasizing the importance of the material you presented. A strong conclusion will leave a lasting impression on your audience.
ADAGY: The act of speaking or writing in adages.
ANTICATHOLICISM: Literature or rhetoric created (often by Protestants) for the purpose of countering Catholic doctrine or depicting Catholicism in a negative light. In Reformation and Post-Reformation British literature, anticatholic motifs frequently appear after the Anglican Church splits from Rome under Henry VIII. Examples include Spenser's Faerie Queene, in which Catholic associations surround villains like Duessa and Archimago. A similar surge of anticatholic characterizations appear just before and during the Enlightenment period, notably in Gothic literature like Lewis' The Monk, in which convents and monasteries are depicted as hypocritical hives of sadism and superstition.
ACYRON: The improper or odd application of a word, such as speaking of "streams of graces" (Shipley 5). When the result is humorous or deliberately absurd, the acyron becomes a .
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. [New York?]: PublicAffairs, 2009. ()
Note: All readings below are required, and must be completed by the session indicated; the only exceptions are those indicated with an asterisk (*), which are recommended additional readings or resources.
Cain, Susan. . New York: Random House, 2012, 2013. ( )
Note: This schedule is subject to revision according to the instructor’s discretion, the for the semester, school closings due to inclement weather or other reasons, and the progress of the class. Additions or changes will be announced in class, and they will also be posted here as well as on the.
Casagrande, June.. New York: Penguin, 2006. ()
ARZAMAS: A Russian literary circle active between 1815-1818; it consisted of poets such as Zhukovski, Batyushkov, Vyazemski, Pushkin, and others. The group focused on writing and sharing parodies of their literary opponents, most of whom favored a heavily Slavonicized style (Harkins 9).
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ANONYMOUS: Of unknown authorship, either because the historical records are missing to shed light on the author's identity, or because the author deliberately hid his identity. Probably 90% of surviving medieval literature lacks authorial attribution. In the case of folklore and much mythology, the oldest versions are also usually anonymous.
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ATLANTIS MYTH: A motif common in mythology in which an ancient, wise, or powerful civilization once existed in a past golden age but floods destroyed it. Plato popularized the myth in his works Timeaus and Critias, where he describes the arrogant island of Atlantis as an adversary of Greek civilization 9,000 years before his own day, but the gods disfavor the island's , and they submerge it into the Atlantic Ocean. Although Plato's references are brief, they have inspired some archeologists to link it with the Island of Thera (which was destroyed by volcanic erruption that triggered tidal waves devastating Minoan civilization in 1900 BCE). Likewise, they have inspired fiction writers to produce a number of later fantastic works. The allegorical aspects of the island influence Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Thomas More's Utopia, and Stephen Lawhead's Taliesin. Among the Inklings, it plays a part in C.S. Lewis's The Magician's Nephew, where dust from Atlantis serves as a component of magical rings, as well as in Lewis's space trilogy. C.S. Lewis also uses it as a comparison to being overwhelmed by grief in his autobiography, Surprised by Joy. Charles Williams plays with the motif in Taliessin Through Logres. Other like J.R.R. Tolkien use the myth indirectly, as Tolkien uses it as an analogue in The Silmarillion, in which Númenor was a huge island in the Sundering Sea, west of Middle-Earth. These Númenorians grew obsessed with the search for immortality, and eventually their culture died when their island sank. In medieval legends, other analogues to the Atlantis myth include the legends of Logres and Lyonesse (which medieval tales located in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Cornwall and Landsend), and older appear in Mesopotamian and Hebrew myth such as in the Old Testament accounts of the flood. A common erroneous claim is that flood myths are universal world-wide, though it actual point of fact, legends in which the world or a civilization die in floods primarily appear in cultures in geographic areas subject to regional flooding. Areas without such flooding do not tend to have Atlantis myths or flood myths.