Institutional Theory; Population Ecology) ..
Turning to the philosophy of ecology, beyond those interpretive andconceptual problems that arise because of the evolutionary context,ecology also presents interpretive and philosophical problems from itsown unique conceptual structure and experimental practices. In thisentry, attention will largely be restricted to population, community,and ecosystem ecology since these have been the focus of the littlephilosophical attention that has so far been afforded to ecology;there will also be some limited treatment of spatial ecology (in ). However, because ecology has not received the degree of professionalphilosophical attention it deserves—while popular“ecological philosophies” abound—this entryconcentrates more on foundational and interpretive issues raised bythe science of ecology rather than only on what philosophers havewritten about the subject.
The Population Ecology of Cycles in Small Mammals.
The chapter highlighted concepts and techniques that are used within the women population One social work concept that should be applied when dealing with the women population is understanding that it is the responsibility of the social worker to assist their clients in the decision making process; It is not the social worker’s responsibility to make decisions for the client....
As with population ecology, what is of most interest is are thechanges in a community over time. This brings us to one of the mostinteresting—and one of the most vexed—questions ofecology: the relationship between diversity and stability. A deeplyrooted intuition among ecologists has been that diversity begetsstability. If this claim is true, it has significant consequences forbiodiversity conservation—see .
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Shaffer went on to argue that all these factors increase in importanceas the population size decreases—a claim that will be questionedbelow—and, therefore, that their effects are hard todistinguish. Finally, he defined a minimum viable population (MVP):“A minimum viable population for any given species in any givenhabitat is the smallest population having at least a 95% chance ofremaining extant for 100 years despite the foreseeable effects ofdemographic, environmental, and genetic stochasticity, and natural catastrophes.” Both numbers (95% and 100 years) are conventional, and to bedetermined by social choice, rather than by biological factors, apoint that Shaffer explicitly recognized.
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The exponential growth model appeals to only one essentiallyecological parameter, the intrinsic growth rate (r) of apopulation, interpreted as the rate at which the population would growif there were no external factor limiting growth; the logistic modelalso appeals to the carrying capacity (K), interpreted as themaximum size of the population that can persist in a givenenvironment. See Figures 2a and 2b:
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There have been two recent developments in ecology which are ofgeneral philosophical interest; moreover, they help mitigate theproblems of complexity and uniqueness noted in . Both developments were made possible by the astronomicalincrease in the speed and ease of computation since the early1980s.
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Cultural ecology and human ecology are closely related and represent a continuum of approaches and themes within the human-environment and nature-society subfields of geography, the cognate disciplines, and the expanding domains of interdisciplinary ideas and research. Specifically, denotes the habitually embedded adaptive practices and behaviors that have coevolved in the relations between humans and their nonhuman worlds; denotes systems of bidirectional interactions, mutual influences, and dynamics of change within human societies and their environments. In addition to the meanings associated with the traditional subfields, the terms and both are used more expansively. Their broader meanings, increasingly common, denote the range of activities, institutions, and ideas that are rooted in the interrelations of humans, their societies, and their environments. In the early 21st century, the influence of the concepts of cultural ecology and human ecology—such as adaptation, sustainability, and degradation—is integral to rapidly expanding interdisciplinary subfields such as political ecology, sustainability science, global-change science, land change science, environment-development and population-environment studies, agrobiodiversity analysis, political ecologies of health, resilience ecology, ecological-footprint analysis, and social-ecological systems (SESs).