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Hard determinism claims that the human personality is subject to, and a product of, natural forces.

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(A Coherent, Naturalistic, and PlausibleFormulation of Libertarian Free Will, NOÛS 38:3 (2004) 379–406) In his book "Free Will as an Open Scientific Question," (MIT Press, 2009) Balaguer reduces his argument to 's exhaustive determinism or indeterminism.

Based on these definitions there will be a personal attempt at denying hard determinism.

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In supertasks, one frequently encounters infinite numbers ofparticles, infinite (or unbounded) mass densities, and other dubiousinfinitary phenomena. Coupled with some of the other breakdowns ofdeterminism in CM, one begins to get a sense that most, if not all,breakdowns of determinism rely on some combination of the followingset of (physically) dubious mathematical notions: {infinite space;unbounded velocity; continuity; point-particles; singular fields}. Thetrouble is, it is difficult to imagine any recognizablephysics (much less CM) that eschews everything in the set.

2) Hard determinism conflicts with some of our ordinary beliefs and experiences.

( A Contemporary Introduction to Free Will, 2005, p.38)But personal determination of the will is only acting consistently, in character and according to values expressed in one's habits and customs, when one does the same thing in the .

Mackie described hard determinism as: 'The view that all actions are explicable in terms of their causes and are therefore inevitable' (J.

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John Earman's Primer on Determinism (1986) remains therichest storehouse of information on the truth or falsity ofdeterminism in various physical theories, from classical mechanics toquantum mechanics and general relativity. (See also his recent updateon the subject, “Aspects of Determinism in Modern Physics”(2007)). Here I will give only a brief discussion of some key issues,referring the reader to Earman (1986) and other resources for moredetail. Figuring out whether well-established theories aredeterministic or not (or to what extent, if they fall only a bitshort) does not do much to help us know whether our world isreally governed by deterministic laws; all our current besttheories, including General Relativity and the Standard Model ofparticle physics, are too flawed and ill-understood to be mistaken foranything close to a Final Theory. Nevertheless, as Earman stressed,the exploration is very valuable because of the way it enriches ourunderstanding of the richness and complexity of determinism.

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The popularization of chaos theory in the relatively recent pastperhaps made it seem self-evident that nature is full of genuinelychaotic systems. In fact, it is far from self-evident that suchsystems exist, other than in an approximate sense. Nevertheless, themathematical exploration of chaos in dynamical systems helps us tounderstand some of the pitfalls that may attend our efforts to knowwhether our world is genuinely deterministic or not.

Causal Determinism (Stanford Encyclopedia of …

The dynamical systems usually studied under the label of“chaos” are usually either purely abstract, mathematicalsystems, or classical Newtonian systems. It is natural to wonderwhether chaotic behavior carries over into the realm of systemsgoverned by quantum mechanics as well. Interestingly, it is muchharder to find natural correlates of classical chaotic behavior intrue quantum systems (see Gutzwiller 1990). Some, at least, of theinterpretive difficulties of quantum mechanics would have to beresolved before a meaningful assessment of chaos in quantum mechanicscould be achieved. For example, SDIC is hard to find in theSchrödinger evolution of a wavefunction for a system with finitedegrees of freedom; but in it is handled quite easily on the basis of particle trajectories (seeDürr, Goldstein and Zhangì 1992).

Spinoza, Benedict De | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Two features of special relativistic physics make it perhaps the mosthospitable environment for determinism of any major theoreticalcontext: the fact that no process or signal can travel faster than thespeed of light, and the static, unchanging spacetime structure. Theformer feature, including a prohibition against tachyons (hypotheticalparticles travelling faster than light)[]), rules out space invaders and other unbounded-velocity systems. Thelatter feature makes the space-time itself nice and stable andnon-singular—unlike the dynamic space-time of GeneralRelativity, as we shall see below. For source-free electromagneticfields in special-relativistic space-time, a nice form of Laplaceandeterminism is provable. Unfortunately, interesting physics needs morethan source-free electromagnetic fields. Earman (1986) ch. IV surveysin depth the pitfalls for determinism that arise once things areallowed to get more interesting (e.g. by the addition of particlesinteracting gravitationally).