Science And Technology Essay: How Science Affects …

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Essay on Science in Science Fiction 1384 Words | 6 Pages

This essay has allowed me to see that different fields of science, even as far apart as biology and quantum mechanics, are all interconnected. Furthermore, the union of different disciples can result in amazing discoveries that further the progress of science. I also learned about various quantum phenomena and its applications in biological systems. It was fascinating to learn about the eccentricity of the quantum world. Additionally, I learned that eloquent writing is truly important in the scientific world, as it serves as the basis for conveying ideas and research.

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Short essay on Science and Technology - Important India

A major impetus for Arabic science was the patronage of the Abbasidcaliphate (758–1258), centered in Baghdad. Early Abbasid rulers,such as Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786–809) and his successorAbū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Ma’mūn (ruled813–833), were significant patrons of Arabic science. The formerfounded the Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom), whichcommissioned translations of major works by Aristotle, Galen, and manyPersian and Indian scholars into Arabic. It was cosmopolitan in itsoutlook, employing astronomers, mathematicians, and physicians fromabroad, including Indian mathematicians and Nestorian (Christian)astronomers. Throughout the Arabic world, public libraries attached tomosques provided access to a vast compendium of knowledge, whichspread Islam, Greek philosophy, and Arabic science. The use of acommon language (Arabic), as well as common religious and politicalinstitutions and flourishing trade relations encouraged the spread ofscientific ideas throughout the empire. Some of this transmission wasinformal, e.g., correspondence between like-minded people (see Dhanani2002), some formal, e.g., in hospitals where students learned aboutmedicine in a practical, master-apprentice setting, and inastronomical observatories and academies. The decline and fall of theAbbasid caliphate dealt a blow to Arabic science, but it remainsunclear why it ultimately stagnated, and why it did not experiencesomething analogous to the scientific revolution in WesternEurope.

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The problem with this narrative is that orthodox worries aboutnon-Islamic knowledge were already present before Al-Ghazālīand continued long after his death (Edis 2007: chapter 2). The studyof law (fiqh) was more stifling for Arabic science thandevelopments in theology. The eleventh century saw changes inIslamic law that discouraged heterodox thought: lack of orthodoxycould now be regarded as apostasy from Islam (zandaqa) whichis punishable by death, whereas before, a Muslim could only apostatizeby an explicit declaration (Griffel 2009: 105). (Al-Ghazālīhimself only regarded the violation of three core doctrines aszandaqa, statements that challenged monotheism, the prophecyof Muḥammad, and resurrection after death.) Given that heterodoxthoughts could be interpreted as apostasy, this created a stiflingclimate for Arabic science. In the second half of the nineteenthcentury, as science and technology became firmly entrenched in westernsociety, Muslim empires were languishing or colonized. Scientificideas, such as evolutionary theory, were equated with Europeancolonialism, and thus met with distrust.

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