Emergency Conservation Work Legislation passes on March 31, 1933

Linda Kalof, Seven Mattes, Amy Fitzgerald Animal Studies Program, Michigan State University

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Dunayer, Joan. 1995. Sexist Words, Speciesist Roots. In Carol J. Adams and Josephine Donovan (eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, 11-31. Durham: Duke University Press.

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of the conservation corps concept

Metze, T.A.P. and S. van Zuydam. 2013. Pigs in the City: Reflective Deliberations on the Boundary Concept of Agroparks in The Netherlands. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning (2013): 1–18.

Aaltola, Elisa. 2012. Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wisconsin waterways have been the focus of many more recent environmental projects and debates. Dams built by lumber companies to store logs in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have been removed from many rivers, restoring natural wildlife and plants as well as aiding the economic revitalization of waterfront communities. The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, from the Fox River, however, has proved more contentious. Although the U.S. government banned the manufacture of PCBs in 1977, the toxic chemicals remained in the soil long after their release by seven paper companies. Despite the known health-risks associated with PCBs, cleanup efforts and goals have sparked controversy between the EPA, the Department of Natural Resources, and environmental organizations.

Abram, David. 2011. Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology. New York: Vintage Books.


The deep-seated connection between mercantilism and imperialism became evident with Spanish efforts. Expeditions were privately financed with royal sanction, and the Crown got a cut of the loot. The Spanish effort was far cruder than what its rivals and successors devised, and it eventually became capitalist in orientation. were formed by the English and Dutch at the beginning of their imperial ascents, with trading companies. The , founded in 1600, and the , founded in 1602, were corporations acting on behalf of their sponsoring states, and were designed to wrest the from Portugal, along with seizing other imperial opportunities. The French regularly bought up the rear, empire-wise, and did not charter their until 1664. In the early 1800s, in the wake of classical economics, corporations became private enterprises and soon were granted , unlimited life, and . Greed was not only enshrined in , but corporations are .

Barton, M. 1987. Animal Rights. London: Watts .

The rise of science, industry, capitalism, and the Enlightenment cannot be effectively separated from Europe’s conquest of the world. They were profoundly interrelated and began with the rise of and , but its ascent became steep when Europeans . Europe’s incessant wars, with , made Europeans an irresistible force. When they rode low-energy transportation lanes to distant lands, the rest of humanity never had a chance. Europe raped and plundered humanity on an unprecedented scale, and as with Roman imperial ideology, there was little consideration shown to the world’s peoples, in practice or theory, by Europeans. They ravaged humanity because they .


Rising standards of living ended slavery, and nothing elevated it like industrialization did. When slavery became uneconomical, people developed consciences, not the other way around. Wealth freedom, and has always been . The innate human desire for freedom became uneconomical to suppress when large energy surpluses existed. Slavery and ended with industrialization. There was little “natural” about it, but in that phase of human economic development the institution made sense, if hideous sense.

Broom, Donald. 2014. Sentience and Animal Welfare. CABI.

I know of no more informative contrast between industrial and preindustrial economies than comparing the USA’s North and South on the eve of its Civil War. The North had a vibrant, industrializing economy that quickly became history’s greatest, with its labor nominally free, and the South had a relatively moribund economy based on slave labor. The North used its industrial capacity to grind down the South in a war of attrition, just as . Superior industrial capacity, which is rooted in energy supplies, has won all major wars during the past two centuries. World War I ended when the , and much of the war was devoted to cutting off the other belligerents’ oil supplies. When Germany surrendered, it had one day’s worth of fuel. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 only after the , and Germany lost World War II after its , and the Nazis simply ran out of fuel. Cutting off access to hydrocarbons, oil in particular, was the industrial equivalent of starving out the enemy in a siege, or how continually tried to cut off the other's access to wood. Oil has been humanity’s , and explains imperial meddling and warfare in the Middle East. All other factors are irrelevant or of extremely minor importance and are often promoted in an attempt to deceive uninformed observers such as the American public; proximate causes, if not entirely fictional to begin with, in those delusion-inducing analyses.