There are three major classes of criminal activity with computers:

Experts in computer security, who are  attorneys,speak of

Unauthorized changing of data is generally a fraudulent act.

In this regard, I would make an analogy to a homicide that occurs"accidentally" during the commission of a felony:the perpetrators are then charged with "felony murder":the intent to commit the hacking constitutes the malice or intentto cause the damage.

Unauthorized UseUnauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms:

This is called a denial of service () attack.

In the late 1990s, computer viruses were generally spread via the Internet,either in e-mail (e.g., a virus contained in a MicrosoftWord macro, or a worm contained in an attachment to e-mail)or in programs downloaded from a website.

The traditional laws were no longer adequate topunish criminals who used computer modems.



In the 1980s, most hackers committed fraud to get a username and password for a computer account, and then logged on to the computer without proper authorization, and browsed through files, copying some, deleting or altering others.

In this way, the computer criminal is acting analogous to a burglar.


Attacking the FBI website is like poking a lion with a stick.

The role of fungi was established early in history. Yeasts have been used in the making of bread and alcohol since the beginning of civilisation. In modern times, the discovery of penicillin marked the beginning of a new approach to microbial diseases in human health. More recent approaches include the application of hydrophobins to surfaces leading to biocompatibility of implants, and to emulsion formation improving drug delivery. The established importance of fungi is being expanding way beyond their capacity to transform and protect.

This is not the worst kind of computer crime.

On the negative side, single isolates of fungi in manufacture may lose their capacity to form or release the target molecules. Indeed, the target compound may only be expressed under specific conditions, or at a specific point in the life cycle of the fungus. It is amazing that so many biologically active compounds have been discovered and taken to the point where they are medically important. Indeed, attempts to 'discover' new and exciting molecules remains the core activity of many research groups.

The Internet is a medium for freely sharing information and opinions.

In 1941, penicillin from the fungus was first used successfully to treat an infection caused by a bacterium. Use of penicilin revolutionised the treatment of pathogenic disease. Many formally fatal diseases caused by bacteria became treatable, and new forms of medical intervention were possible.

The following is one case involving a famous series of DoS attacks:

Fungi are extremely useful organisms in biotechnology. Fungi construct unique complex molecules using established metabolic pathways. Different taxa produce sets of related molecules, each with slightly different final products. Metabolites formed along the metabolic pathway may also be biologically active. In addition, the final compounds are often released into the environment. Manipulation of the genome, and environmental conditions during formation of compounds, enable the optimisation of product formation.

Yahoo was pinged at the rate of one gigabyte/second.

When penicillin was first produced, the concentration of active ingredient was approximately 1 microgram per ml of broth solution. Today, improved strains and highly developed fermentation technologies produce more than 700 micrograms per ml of active ingredient.