By Danny Beckwith, Education Specialist
Atmospheric CO2 is currently just below 400 parts per million (ppm) on average. It last reached similar levels during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 million years ago). At that time, temperatures rose to levels 2-3°C warmer than today, and sea level rose by up to 20m in places. Sea level takes a few hundred years to reach equilibrium in response to changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature, which may explain why sea level has not yet risen to the same levels seen in the Pliocene.
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This is another nice hypothesis without any evidence for it. The idea that the decreasing CO₂ forcing, by coincidence has been exactly matched by the increasing solar forcing in both rate and time, is difficult to believe. One of its main problems is that CO₂ forcing has a logarithmic effect on temperatures, so to match a linear increase in solar forcing, the decrease in CO₂ forcing should have been exponential. There is no evidence for an exponential decay in atmospheric CO₂ over hundreds of millions of years. The most logical explanation is that the huge water content of the planet is responsible for its temperature homeostasis.
In the interest of helping Crusty understand, the troposphere is heated by infrared radiation that is re-emitted from “black bodies” on the surface. This heat is trapped by green house gasses – overwhelmingly water vapour. The further you get from the surface, the colder it gets. That’s why when you go up it gets colder – snow capped mountains. But it doesn’t keep getting colder for ever – at the top of the troposphere is the tropopause that marks the boundary with the stratosphere. The stratosphere is heated directly by in coming UV, and hence as you get closer to the source, ie. the Sun, it gets warmer. So in the stratosphere it gets warmer as you go up.
Choose two of three: Story / Challenge / Legacy
Chain Reaction is a separate program from the Awaken, Sustain, and Immerse packages. The Chain Reaction program is usually conducted a short time after a school has had one of the other three packages.
From the back cover and inside pages of the book:
6 hours, in a dedicated space where participants won't be interrupted, presented by 2 certified Rachel's Challenge presenters. Some program support materials will be provided by the host.
Training, helpline and materials
Chain Reaction includes a cross section of your school's population represented by 80-100 students and 20-25 adults. A minimum ratio of 1 adult to 4 students must be maintained throughout the program. It is designed to promote personal introspection, understanding of others, community building and empowerment. This is accomplished by focusing on the following themes:
Middle School (5th-8th) or High School (9th-12th)
Participants understand their personal identity, power and uniqueness. They learn that they are not personally defined by their circumstances and experiences. Participants also come to understand that despite their personal uniqueness they share experiences with many others in the room. Barriers among the participants are broken down by the realization that through these shared experiences they are not alone.
Middle School and High School (5th-12th)
A group of geologists have drawn my attention to the 2010/2013 ‘s statement on climate change and asked if I could arrange an on-line discussion about it. The lead author of the statements is Dr Colin Summerhayes who has participated as and commenter on Energy Matters before. And so I asked if I could reproduce the statements on these pages and invite informed commentary. This modus operandi was approved by Dr Summerhayes’ co-authors and the committee of the Geological Society of London.
Support materials shipped to your location by Rachel's Challenge
The addendum is arranged such that some sections are unchanged from the original. For other sections additional information is provided, but this is not merged with the original content. Its is therefore not possible to read a single updated report. What I have provided below is the full text of the original 2010 statement which is ~ 3000 words long and a copy of the 2013 Addendum summary. Those who want to read the full addendum should simply use the link provided above.