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Among other issues, Smith is interested in the role of ecological gradients in speciation and maintaining species diversity.

A doctrine that applies the principles of selection to the structure of society, asserting that social structure is determined by how well people are suited to living conditions.

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The term has no direct significance.

The verdict had a chilling effect on teaching evolution in the classroom, however, and not until the 1960s did it reappear in schoolbooks.

A reproductive strategy in which one male and one female mate and reproduce exclusively with each other.

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Known for his efforts at various sorts of measurement (he developed fingerprinting and was a pioneer in statistics), he was knighted in 1909.

reproductive cells that combine at fertilization to form the , called sperm (or pollen) in males and eggs in females.

Meaning "stomach foot," this name refers to the class of that contains the most species.

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A recent book, , offers an introduction to the subject of memes.

Before the widespread acceptance of , the existence of former land bridges was often invoked to explain and similarities between continents now widely separated.

Compare with . A scientist who studies plants.

For example, a caterpillar is the larval stage of a butterfly or moth.

A description of how a natural phenomenon will occur under certain circumstances.

A paleoanthropologist at the National Museums of Kenya, Maeve is the discoverer of and .

It cannot be used to determine the age of Earth, for example.

He traveled extensively throughout Europe and was elected to the Academy of Sciences, where he introduced the principles of heredity and .

A connection between two land masses, especially continents (e.g., the Bering land bridge linking Alaska and Siberia across the Bering Strait) that allows migration of plants and animals from one land mass to the other.

An early experimental , his 1901 paper was the first on in America.



A British paleoanthropologist described as "a real fossil hunter" and "the real scientist in the family." Her discoveries, some in collaboration with her husband Louis Leakey, included the 1.75-million-year-old skull which first showed the antiquity of in Africa, jaws and teeth of an early species, and fossilized footprints of hominids.

The son of renowned anthropologists Louis and , Richard continued their work on early from 1964 until the 1980s, making a number of significant fossil finds in the Lake Turkana area and serving as director of the National Museum of Kenya.

The basic structural and functional unit of most living organisms.

Kreiswirth uses DNA fingerprinting to study the evolution of in , the that causes .

Historically misleading synonym for .

An 18th-century naturalist, zoologist, and botanist noted for his study and classification of invertebrates, as well as his evolutionary theories.

Cell size varies, but most cells are microscopic.



A molecular geneticist and microbial biologist, who in the 1980s collaborated with Paul Nurse on novel research that demonstrated the commonality of the genetic code between yeasts and humans.